Cimmerians ended the Phrygian reign, and were then followed by the Medes
(585BC) and the Persians (547 BC). The Persians divided the empire into
semi autonomous provinces and ruled the area using governors who were known
as satraps. In the ancient Persian language, Katpatuka, the word for
Cappadocia, meant "Land of the well bred horses".
The Persians gave their people the freedom to choose their own religion
and to speak their native languages. Since the religion they were devoted
to was the Zoroastrian religion, fire was considered to be divine, and
so, the volcanoes of Erciyes and Hasandagi were sacred for them.
Persians constructed a "Royal Road" connecting their capital city in Cappadocia
to the Aegean region. The Macedonian King Alexander defeated Persian
armies twice, in 334 and 332 BC, and conquered this great empire.
After bringing the Persian Empire to an end, King Alexander met with great
resistance in Cappadocia. He tried to rule the area through one of
his commanders named Sabictus, but the ruling classes and people resisted
and declared Ariarthes, a Persian aristocrat, as king. Ariarthes
I (332 - 322 BC) was a successful ruler, and extended the borders of the
Cappadocian Kingdom as far as the Black Sea.
The kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander.
From then until 17AD, when it became a Roman province, it fought wars with
the Macedonians, the Galatians and the Pontus nation.